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Lead and Copper Rule

Service Line Inventories

EPA published the Lead and Copper Rule Revisions (LCRR) in January 2021, which requires all community and nontransient noncommunity water systems to submit a service line inventory to DEP by October 16, 2024.

Inventory Template and Job Aids:

To meet the inventory requirements, DEP is recommending the use of the DEP Excel Inventory Template:

Water systems that already have an electronic database containing service line inventory information and who do not wish to re-enter their information into the service line inventory spreadsheet developed by the Department (document number 3930-FM-BSDW0042a) may e-mail to request an alternate template for use and upload.

Service Line Replacement - RMM:

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has stated that lead service line replacements (LSLR) are associated with short-term elevated drinking water lead levels for some period of time after replacement. To combat these elevated lead levels and ensure that LSLR are completed properly, risk reduction measures (RMM) have been developed for water systems to implement. The measures are outlined in the Risk Mitigation Measures for Water Systems Conducting Lead Service Line Replacement fact sheet. DEP also developed a public notice that water suppliers can use to provide the information specified in the article regarding customer notifications:

Lead Service Line Replacement Customer Notification 3930-FM-BSDW0089 (NEW) (Word)

Lead Service Line Replacement Customer Notification 3930-FM-BSDW0089 (NEW) (PDF)

Overview of the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR)

Publication and Revision Dates

Subchapter K in Chapter 109 published December 24, 1994, revised with minor revisions on August 10, 2002 and with short-term revisions on December 18, 2010.

Chapter 109 Sections
  • §109.1101 Scope
  • §109.1102 Action levels and treatment technique requirements
  • §109.1103 Monitoring requirements
  • §109.1104 Public education and notification
  • §109.1105 Permit requirements
  • §109.1106 Design standards
  • §109.1107 System management responsibilities
  • §109.1108 Fees


Protect public health by minimizing lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) levels in drinking water, primarily by reducing water corrosivity. Pb and Cu enter drinking water mainly from corrosion of Pb and Cu containing plumbing materials.

General Description

Establishes an action level (AL) of 0.015 mg/L for lead and 1.3 mg/L for copper based on the 90th percentile level of tap water samples. An AL exceedance is not a violation but can trigger other requirements that include water quality parameter (WQP) monitoring, corrosion control treatment (CCT), source water monitoring/treatment, public education (PE) and lead service line replacement (LSLR).


All community water systems (CWSs) and nontransient noncommunity water systems (NTNCWSs) are subject to the LCR requirements.

LCR Reference Guide

This Lead and Copper Rule Quick Reference Guide (PDF) is a general reference guide to the major provisions of the Lead and Copper Rule.

LCR Sample Site Location Plan

This Instruction Packet for Lead and Copper Tap Sample Site Location Plan (3900-FM-BSDW0549) provides the regulatory requirements and template forms to complete a sample site location plan.

LCR Monitoring

Lead and Copper Tap Homeowner Sampling Procedures (PDF)
Homeowners should leave faucet aerators in place prior to sampling.

Clarification of Requirements for Collecting Samples and Calculating Compliance (PDF)
Where samples need to be collected, whether customer requested samples are counted in the 90th percentile compliance value, and how the 90th percentile compliance value is calculated.

Instructions and Template for Consumer Tap Notice for Lead Results
Chapter §109.1104(b) requires water systems to deliver a consumer tap notice of lead tap water monitoring results to persons served by the water at sites that are sampled. This document provides instructions and a template for this consumer tap notice. DEP has also created a fill-in-the-blank template for a NTNCWS Consumer Tap Notice. Additionally, the water supplier shall submit to DEP within three months of the end of the monitoring period in which lead tap monitoring was conducted a sample copy of the consumer notice of lead tap monitoring results along with a certification form (3900-FM-BSDW0205) that the notices were distributed by mail or by another method approved by DEP.

Treatment Technique Requirements

Corrosion Control Treatment (CCT) Applicability

  • All large systems
  • Small and medium systems that exceed either action level (AL); may stop CCT steps if both ALs are met during 2 consecutive 6-month monitoring periods prior to approval to construct CCT facilities; but, must resume CCT if subsequently exceed either AL.

CCT Compliance Schedule

All activities begin from the end of the monitoring period in which the AL was exceeded:

  • Submit a CCT feasibility study (PDF) within 18 months.
  • Submit a permit application within 30 months.
  • Initiate construction or modification of CCT facilities within 48 months.
  • Complete construction or modification of CCT within 60 months.

CCT Requirements for Optimal CCT for Large Water Systems (PDF)
Large water systems that change water sources are still obligated to maintain Optimal CCT.

2016 EPA OCCT Manual

The Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations document provides technical recommendations that water systems can use to comply with Lead and Copper Rule corrosion control treatment requirements and effective evaluation and designation of optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT). Additionally, this document also provides Excel-based OCCT Evaluation templates that can be used to organize data and document decisions.

Lead Public Education (PE)

Community water systems and nontransient noncommunity water systems that exceed the lead action level in their 90th percentile value are required to deliver lead PE materials.

PE Material Content

Delivery Method

  • System must submit copes of PE materials to DEP prior to delivery.
  • CWSs: deliver materials to bill-paying customers and post lead information on water bills, work in concert with local health agencies to reach "at-risk" populations (children, pregnant women), deliver to other organizations serving "at-risk" populations, provide press releases, include new outreach activities from §109.1104(a)(2)(i)(H), and post PE materials to website if system serves > 100,000 people.
  • NTNCWSs: Posting and distribution to all customers (can be electronic).


  • Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring period in which Pb AL was exceeded if not already delivering PE.
  • Repeat annual except: quarterly water bill inserts, press releases twice a year and continuous web posting.
  • Discontinue whenever Pb AL is met; but, must resume PE program if subsequent Pb AL is exceeded.

Simultaneous Compliance

AWWA "Managing Change and Unintended Consequences: Lead and Copper Rule Corrosion Control Treatment" Copyright 2005
This document provides valuable resources and detailed explanations on how water quality changes may impact lead corrosion. NOTE: Systems are required to notify DEP prior to treatment changes or source water changes. This document is under revision to incorporate that notification requirement.

Microbial and Disinfection Byproduct Rules Simultaneous Compliance Guidance Manual (PDF)
This manual describes many of the potential conflicts that may arise as systems comply with the rules currently being developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), known collectively as the Microbial and Disinfection Byproduct (M-DBP) cluster of rules.

Chapter 4 "SIMULTANEOUS COMPLIANCE ISSUES BETWEEN THE STAGE 1 DBPR, THE IESWTR, AND LEAD AND COPPER RULE" within this manual identifies conflicts between the Stage 1 DBPR, IESWTR, and the LCR can occur when the chemical stability of drinking water is affected. Lead and copper are released into drinking water by corrosion, specific chemical measures such as pH and alkalinity adjustment and the addition of corrosion inhibitors are employed. Certain actions that may be necessary for PWSs to comply with the Stage 1 DBPR, such as enhanced coagulation, can upset the established operating chemistry in a system by lowering the pH. Similarly, certain actions that may be necessary for PWSs to comply with the IESWTR, such as removing additional turbidity, can be affected by the addition of chemicals that inhibit corrosion.

This chapter briefly discusses the LCR and presents several potential conflicts between the Stage 1 DBPR, the IESWTR, and the LCR. It includes discussion of the following topics:
  • pH impacts
  • Turbidity issues
  • Microbial re-growth issues
  • Enhanced coagulation issues
  • Disinfection strategy issues

Regulations and Guidance

Subchapter K of Chapter 109

  • This subchapter establishes treatment technique requirements that include requirements for corrosion control treatment, lead service line replacement and public education. These requirements are triggered, in some cases, by samples collected at consumers' taps which exceed a lead or copper action level.
  • This subchapter applies to community water systems and nontransient noncommunity water systems. For purposes of this subchapter, the systems are classified as either large, medium or small, based on the population served by the system. A large water system serves more than 50,000 persons. A medium water system serves more than 3,300 and fewer than or equal to 50,000 persons. A small water system serves 3,300 or fewer persons.
  • A community or nontransient noncommunity water system which is a consecutive water system shall comply with this subchapter regardless of the compliance status of any public water system from which finished water is obtained. Each interconnection with a public water system from which finished water is obtained is considered source water for the receiving public water system and is subject to the monitoring, corrosion control treatment and source water treatment requirements under this subchapter.

DEP has created a Lead and Copper Rule Short-term Revisions (LCRSTR) (PDF) summary document that describes each revision and includes the Chapter 109 page number of the online Chapter 109 version (PDF). These revisions were published in the PA Bulletin on December 18, 2010 and are now incorporated into Chapter 109.