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Research and Publications

Total Organic Carbon: A Reliable Indicator of TTHM and HAA5 Formation? (PDF)

When comparing data from the 73 large water systems in Pennsylvania, the authors observed no apparent correlation between either raw or finished water total organic carbon (TOC) and total trihalomethane concentrations over much of the range of TOC values examined in this study. In addition, they found no apparent correlation between TOC and haloacetic acid concentrations over the entire range of TOC values.

-- Reprinted from Proceedings of 2004 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, by permission. © 2004, American Water Works Association. To obtain more information, contact AWWA at 800-926-7337 or visit www.awwa.org.

Getting the Most Out of Your TOC Information (PDF)

Learn more about monitoring and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) at surface water treatment plants. Stages 1 and 2 of the Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule have raised the importance of TOC at both large and small water suppliers across the United States. Through this Opflow article, the Department of Environmental Protection provides help in understanding the regulatory terms, offers tips for TOC removal, and shows readers how to access helpful information.

-- Reprinted from Opflow, Vol. 30, No. 3 (March 2004), by permission. Copyright © 2004, American Water Works Association (www.awwa.org).

Incorporating Filter Bed Expansion Measurements into Your Backwashing Routine (PDF)

During Pennsylvania's 14-year history of conducting over 1,000 detailed Filter Plant Performance Evaluations at 349 plants, the Department of Environmental Protection has performed countless filter bed expansion measurements. In the paper, the authors share innovative construction and measurement techniques, with the goal of enabling operators to routinely conduct efficient bed expansion measurements.

-- Reprinted from Proceedings of 2003 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, by permission. © 2003, American Water Works Association. To obtain complete document, contact AWWA at 800-926-7337 or visit www.awwa.org This research paper was also published in Opflow, September 2003.

Opflow Article - Benefits of Phase III Self Assessment (PDF)

Unless you've successfully worked through Phase III of the PfSW, you're not likely to realize the numerous benefits the Partnership's self-assessment process has to offer. This article describes how this unique process can have various benefits for both operational and administrative staff within a water utility. Partnership membership in PA is diverse; utilities of various size and operational complexity participate. More than Forty-two (42) PA Partners have successfully achieved Phase III status. These systems have taken various approaches to working through the Phase III process. Another purpose of this article is to provide some insight into the approaches other utilities have used to successfully work through Phase III. Whether you're considering joining the Partnership or, currently a Partnership member working towards Phase III, you should find this article informative.

-- Reprinted from Opflow, Vol. 30, No. 11 (November 2004), by permission. Copyright © 2004, American Water Works Association (www.awwa.org).

Investigation of Disinfection Byproducts in Small Surface Water Filtration Plants in Pennsylvania (PDF)

Read about a special study staff at small filter plants needed to collect information for the Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. With the help of summer interns, the Department of Environmental Protection initiated a study at about 160 small filter plants to determine levels of Total Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids since very little data was available at the time. The study also demonstrated proper sampling procedures to operators.

-- Reprinted from Proceedings of 2002 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, by permission. © 2002, American Water Works Association. To obtain complete document, contact AWWA at 800-926-7337 or visit www.awwa.org This research paper was also published in the New England Journal AWWA, September 2003.

Factors Affecting Filtered Water Turbidity (PDF)

Read a peer-reviewed journal article about the Department of Environmental Protection's detailed study at 75 surface water treatment plants. The authors reviewed key water quality, design and operational variables to determine their affect on filtered water turbidity.

-- Reprinted from Journal AWWA, Vol. 91 Issue 12, by permission. © 1999, American Water Works Association. To obtain complete document, contact AWWA at 800-926-7337 or visit www.awwa.org

Pennsylvania's Filtration Evaluation Program (PDF)

Read a peer-reviewed journal article about the Filter Plant Performance Evaluation program. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed 506 FPPEs at 290 surface water treatment plants. The authors provide a summary of evaluation tools and findings from these filter plants over a nine-year period.

-- Reprinted from Journal AWWA, Vol. 89 Issue 8, by permission. © 1997, American Water Works Association. To obtain complete document, contact AWWA at 800-926-7337 or visit www.awwa.org

Articles covering the Filter Plant Performance Evaluation program have appeared in the following journals and publications.

  Opflow. Vol. 91, No. 11, 2003. 
Journal AWWA. Vol. 91, Issue 12, 1999   
Journal New England Water Works Association. Vol. 111, No. 3, 1997. 
Journal AWWA. Vol. 89 Issue 8, 1997   
Water Engineering & Management. Vol. 142, No. 3, March 1995. 
Environmental Insight. Vol. 1, No. 2, 1994.   
WaterWorld. Vol. 10, No. 4, July/Aug 1994. 
Water Quality Technology Presented and published 1992, 1995, 2000, 2002, 2003 & 2004.